Category Archives: Research

Articles published in different scientific journals

12. Traditional and Modern Maternal and Child Health Care Practices and Effects among Rajbanshi community in Nepal.
This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study on the Rajbanshi of Nepal in 2010. The common theories in Ethnographic/Indigenous Psychological perspective, Social Construction theories and Public Health perspectives have navigated the study. This study poses both qualitative and quantitative methods: interviews, observations and examinations. Household samples were randomly taken and clusters taken by purposive sampling method. Altogether 1514 people accounted in samples. Tools were semi-structured questionnaires, checklists, EPDS, weighing machine and measuring tape.Rajbanshi community is one of the marginalized indigenous people resided in the southeastern part of Nepal. They have unique tradition and culture. They have owned traditional health care practices. Guru Gosai and Gosai are traditional healers. In the Rajbanshi tradition, the causes of diseases and illnesses are deities, witchcraft, evil spirits, the touch of pithiya/chhatka and dirty environment or poor sanitation. They diagnose disease by looking at jokhana. After the findings, they treat patients by chanting of mantra or jharphuk, jadibuti, buti, ferani or bhakal. They are mainly taking modern care services from different levels private clinics/nursing home/hospitals and public health post/hospitals simultaneously.In the study 93.87% samples adopted modern and traditional dual practices concurrently. 74.14% samples visited local medical clinics, and 14.41% visited hospitals for the treatment at first.  Total 28% samples adopted solely modern care where nobody adopted solely traditional practices. However, 11.50% samples took traditional care at first for the mother and the child care. 16% pregnant took first care from traditional healers. The study also identified the trend of traditional and modern care practices. Hospital delivery increased from 30.67% to 69.33% between first and last deliveries where home delivery decreased to 29.23% from 69.33%.In spite of good access to modern care services the maternal and child mortality rates estimated high in those who are very poor, illiterate, remote and traditional practicing families in the community. Likewise, children with underweight were in an alarming situation (72.53%) in those who are very poor, labor, illiterate, rural and traditional practicing. Postpartum depression in mothers associated with their stress and sleeplessness were statistically significant. The PPD in mothers also tested with husband’s smoking habit and find statistically highly significant (p=<.0001).  Women of three groups are vulnerable: 1. Pithiya is a woman whose baby has died or stillbirth. 2. Chhatka is a mother who is suffering from abortion. 3. Tantra/mantra practicing women. These women are considered as causes of diseases. In such sociocultural circumstances, they become victims of social stigma.Traditional practices involve local barbers to cut the umbilical cord during delivery. They shave newborn’s head with the traditional knives after few days of the delivery. They are unsafe and can cause infection including neonatal tetanus. They need training on using sterile blades. Awareness of reproductive rights in mothers needs to rise. They need integrated mental health program. More nutritional programs required for the children.  
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11. Managing Hepatitis Outbreak in Biratnagar Nepal
This is a review article on jaundice outbreak occurred in Biratnagar during April-July 2014. The study reviewed the reports on hepatitis outbreak presented by District Public Health Officer Morang during a seminar organized by Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC), District Disaster Management Committee (DDMC) meetings and HMIS (Health Management Information System) database. District Public Health Office (DPHO) recorded 2,789 Jaundice patients in Morang district including Biratnagar city. Most of the patients (80.67%) recorded from Biratnagar. In the outbreak sex ratio of female to male was 0.56:1. Hepatitis infection was highest among 15-29 age groups and noticed remarkable among 15 to 54 years age groups. District Disaster Management Committee declared the outbreak in Biratnagar on April 28 when 95 jaundice patients recorded in the hospitals. The number reached at peak level 176 patients on May 6 and the trend came downward to normal level on July 8, 2014. Total 12 deaths recorded in the outbreak. Of them 8 deaths recorded from Biratnagar, 3 deaths from Morang district and 1 death from Saptari district. In Biratnagar ward No. 11 listed 5 deaths, ward No. 8 listed 2 deaths and ward No. 3 listed 1 death. Case fatality rate in the Biratnagar outbreak calculated as 0.43%. The causes of hepatitis infection were hepatitis viruses E and A. The transmission of infection in Biratnagar was due to sewage contamination through leaking pipes in water distribution. The level of community awareness on taking safe water observed in the Biratnagar. Before the outbreak, people used to drink tap water without treatment. After the outbreak, people changed their behavior to boil or filter water to drink in houses. Many people started to purchase mineral water in jars and bottles from the market. However, government water supply system in Biratnagar is poor which demands an upgrade to meet WHO standard of drinking water.
To cite this article
Nawa Raj Subba, Managing Hepatitis Outbreak in Biratnagar Nepal, Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 808-814. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20150306.12
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10. Suicides in Ilam District of Nepal
American Journal of Applied Psychology, Volume 4, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 137-141
Received: Sep. 20, 2015; Accepted: Sep. 29, 2015; Published: Oct. 12, 2015
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajap.20150406.11 Views 29 Downloads 4
Nawa Raj Subba, Department of Psychology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
To cite this article
Nawa Raj Subba, Suicides in Ilam District of Nepal, American Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2015, pp. 137-141. doi: 10.11648/j.ajap.20150406.11
This is a review of suicides through post-mortem reports committed in Ilam district of Nepal. The review is base on all total 112 post-mortem reports of three consecutive fiscal years (2001/02, 3002/03, 2003/04) available in District Health Office Ilam. Epi-Info software used to analyze the samples in the computer. Findings showed the ethnic distribution of the samples was indigenous Janajati 53.7%, Brahmin 29.5%, Dalit 8.9% and Chhetri 8%. Sex ratio of female to male was 2:1. The mean age of suicide noticed in male 34 years and in female 35 years. Suicides from Ilam municipality, Mangalbare and Maipokhari villages recorded high. Means of suicides were hanging 71.43%, organophosphate poisoning 12.5% and weapon 1.79%, fire 1.79%, fall 1.79%, and drown 0.89%. The highest suicides noted in 20-29 ages group. The trend of suicides was increasing over the past 11 years (1992-2003) in the district.Keywords
Suicide, Demographic Information, Trend, Ilam Nepal.

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Transformation of Delivery Practice in Rajbanshi Mothers of Nepal

 Nawa Raj Subba

This is a cross-sectional study with the objective of identifying modification in delivery practice in Rajbanshi mothers of Nepal. Methodology: Both qualitative and quantitative tools were used. Semi-structured questionnaires covering 375 samples of its resident districts Morang, Jhapa and Sunsari districts and check lists for in-depth interview were used in the study. Findings: People were adopting both traditional and modern care practices concurrently. Among 375 households; 40% adopted local clinic/ hospital/ traditional healer concurrently. Similarly 31.20% adopted local clinic/ traditional healer/ hospital, 10.67% adopted hospital/traditional healer. There were 11.47% (urban 0.54% and rural 10.93%) respondents were having traditional care system as a first choice. During first delivery among 375 mothers 265 (70.67%) had traditional home delivery and 110 (29.33%) had hospital delivery. During last delivery, this was 115 (30.67%) in traditional home delivery and 260 (69.33%) in hospital delivery. Therefore trend of hospital delivery was increasing whereas trend of traditional home delivery was decreasing. It was statistically highly significant (p=<0.0001). There was also remarkable increased in using trained Health Worker/Nurse/Doctor at hospitals is 66.4% during last delivery which was only 6.13% during first delivery. It is statistically highly significant (p= <.0001). Conclusion: Trend of hospital delivery was increasing (from 30.67% to 69.33%) and trend of home delivery was decreasing (from 69.33% to 29.23%) in between first and last child delivery. There was remarkable increased in using trained HW/Nurse/Doctor at hospitals is 66.4% during last delivery which was only 6.13% during first delivery. Traditional care was more practiced in rural than in urban population.

Keywords: Traditional home delivery, Modern hospital delivery, Rajbanshi, Nepal Continue reading Transformation of Delivery Practice in Rajbanshi Mothers of Nepal

A Study of Public Health Indicators of Morang Nepal by Lot Quality Assurance Sampling

This article is the result of findings of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling that present and compares the findings of Public Health status indicators of Morang district over 2004 and 2006. Surveys’ findings are also been compared with data that come from Health Management Information System. This study aimed to see the trend of status of coverage of public health services in the district. Continue reading A Study of Public Health Indicators of Morang Nepal by Lot Quality Assurance Sampling