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Public Health Review Articles

The Relation between Depression and Water Insecurity in Uganda.

A study has shown a very interesting finding of depression in Africa. Women residing in water inadequate areas suffered from depression. The study finds an association between depression in women and household water insecurity. The women associated at 70% greater risk in water insecurity rural Ugandan areas (Cooper-Vince et al., 2018).
Uganda developed a reliable and valid tool to measure a Water Insecurity in Southern Uganda. The tool Household Water Insecurity Access Scale (HWIAS) used to measure water insecurity in the households(Swindale & Bilinsky, 2006). The tool had an 8 self-report and 8-item measure of household water insecurity with score 0-24. The tool designed to bring out perception of the quality, the quantity of water, and anxiety about the uncertainty of water (Tsai AC, Kakuhikire B, Mushavi R, Vořechovská D, Perkins JM, McDonough AQ, 2016).
The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-Depression Subscale (HSCL-D) assessed the depression in the past week. The HSCL-D has 15 item of self-report symptoms of anxiety and depression.
This study finding suggests the need for focal screening of depression in water-deprived households. It indicates that water facility will improve the women’s mental health (Cooper-Vince et al., 2018). We can apply the variables in the study to assess the mental health state of women living in water insecure areas in Nepal.
Continue reading The Relation between Depression and Water Insecurity in Uganda.

Tuberculosis still Challenging Public Health

Nawaraj Subba*


Health workers used to say Tuberculosis (TB) as a disease like common cold which is easily curable by taking drug. Multi drug regimen and DOTS has really opened new horizon on TB control programme. Globally, commencement of HIV/AIDS has created barrier on the way of this TB control programme. Now, Multi drug regimen has added more challenge in this endeavor which is difficult and forbiddingly expensive to treat. Continue reading Tuberculosis still Challenging Public Health

Right to Health

Nawa Raj Subba

What is the Right to Health?

Every woman, man, youth and child has the human right to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, without discrimination of any kind. Enjoyment of the human right to health is vital to all aspects of a person’s life and well-being and is crucial to the realization of many other fundamental human rights and freedoms.

Health is one of the components of an adequate standard of living. Historically, the protection of public health has been accompanied by legal regulation – health law is as old as law itself. Its development demonstrates that the state of an individual’s health is often determined by factors beyond a person’s medical condition.

The right to health includes access to adequate health care (medical, preventative, and mental), nutrition, sanitation, and to clean water and air. It also includes occupational health consequences such as chronic injuries and diseases resulting from unhealthy and hazardous working conditions. This does not mean that an individual has the right to be healthy since no government can assure a specific state of health. The state of health depends on the person’s genetic makeup and is molded by environment and health interventions. Continue reading Right to Health

WATCH Project- SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis of WATCH project

– Nawaraj Subba

Under ToR with AIFO Italy which is one of the donors of WATCH, an assessment of the project was undertaken by this writer. WATCH is working in HIV/AIDS, social empowerment and income generation in Kathmandu, Rupandehi, Kapilvastua and Nawalparashi districts.
SWOT Analysis on the basis of FGD with Rupendehi staff.


  • Good management of project (Planning, Implementation and Review/ feedback)
  • Targets are being achieved.
  • Rescue helpless women and children
  • IEC material Production and display
  • Development of Leadership and Organization Skill
  • Enhancement in Livelihood
  • Income Generation Activities
  • Relief and care of poor
  • Staff expressed their satisfaction with their jobs.

  • Limited numbers of Clinics and Health workers
  • The problem in a referral system
  • Prevention and promotion component is inadequate
  • Family planning is inadequate especially in squatter groups

  • Good results are replicable to other VDCs.
  • Facilitators require more in-service training to make an update.
  • The community has accepted the programmes provided by WATCH.
  • Current unrest situation has not affected the programmes.

  • Illiteracy in women
  • Absolute poverty (No land, food, shelter, clothes)
  • Difficulty to solve chained problems
  • To have taken risks by WATCH for everything
  • Weather and diseases play major determinants for agriculture.

SWOT Analysis Continue reading WATCH Project- SWOT Analysis